Student development practices emphasize life, employment, and occupational skill development via school-based and work-based learning in addition to student assessments and accommodations.
The National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center has identified 25 evidence-based practices in student development. They include teaching:
(Test, Fowler, Kohler, & Kortering, 2010; Test, Fowler, Richter, White, Mazzotti, Walker, Kohler, & Kortering, 2009).
Resources related to these evidence-based practices are listed below on the topics of academic learning; student engagement; mentoring; career awareness and exploration; community-based instruction; paid and non-paid work experience, employment, and supported employment; the Discovery Process; school-based enterprises; social skills, and independent living skills. For a information on self-advocacy and self-determination click here.
Academic Evidence-Based Practices
National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center summaries of evidence-based practices that support academic learning including mnemonics (memory aids), peer assistance, self-management, technology, and visual displays.
Johns Hopkins University Best Evidence Encyclopedia
Reliable, unbiased reviews of education programs for reading and math at all levels including high school, English Language Learners, and struggling learners.
What We Know About How People Learn
2002 issue of the California Journal of Science Education exploring, in accessible language, how children learn, learning styles, and strategies that encourage students to deepen their understanding.
Check & Connect
Check & Connect promotes student engagement with school, reduces dropouts, and increases school completion. It originated from a partnership of researchers, practitioners, parents, and students led by the Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota. Florida has implemented this model in multiple districts.
Student Engagement is a PowerPoint presentation created by Amy Reschly, PhD, and James Appleton, PhD, and provides information on theories, strategies, models, studies, data reports and the Student Engagement Instrument (SEI). Note: This is a large PowerPoint file with 64 slides.
Exploring New Territories: Technology Resources for Struggling Students and Students with Disabilities - 2010 Version
Accessible 2009 versions available at http://www.fdlrstech.com/handouts.htm
Students disengage when they can't access instructional materials and activities. This on-line publication from FDLRS contains information and resources for Universal Design for Learning; North Star Guide to Technology Planning; appropriate and accessible instructional materials; resources for reading, math, science, and other classes including e-learning; computer access; assistive technology; FCAT accommodations; and BEESS technology services. A new section deals with technology solutions for "continuity of learning" challenges due to pandemics and natural disasters. (Large file: 5.46 MB)
Community Tool Box, Youth Mentoring Programs
The Community Tool Box is a free, online resource for those working to build healthier communities and bring about social change. This section of the Community Tool Box features sections on building mentoring programs, recruiting and training mentors, as well as building relationships and monitoring mentoring programs.
National Dropout Prevention Center/Network,
This website features an overview of mentoring, including a rationale for and the impact of mentoring. This page also features key elements of successful mentoring programs and a link to related resources.
PACER Center, Dropout Prevention
This website features several resources related to student dropout prevention, including an information sheet entitled “Dropout Prevention and Youth with Disabilities: The Role of Mentors” (2009) as well as links for additional information.
This report from the National Center on Secondary Education and Transition describes how youth mentoring provided by caring adults can help both youth and adults with professional development, growth, and support—as well as benefit the overall community.
Dropout Prevention Programs and Strategies
Cursor down this Web page to Mentoring Programs, from the Florida Department of Education, which highlights several programs including
Advancing Student Achievement Mentoring Program Grants
The Actuarial Foundation makes awards to schools and groups to develop viable mentoring programs involving actuaries in the teaching of mathematics to children in private and public schools. Collaboration among school systems, local actuarial clubs, corporations and other stakeholders in education is encouraged in order to enhance the chances of success, particularly on a long-term basis. Maximum award is $30,000. Click on "Get Involved" for grant information.
Career Awareness and Exploration
America’s Career InfoNet
This Web site helps individuals explore career opportunities to make informed employment and education choices. It also features user-friendly occupation and industry information, salary data, over 450 career videos, education resources, self-assessment tools, career exploration assistance, and talent development resources for today's fast-paced global marketplace.
Career and Education Planning Course Outline
This resource contains modules on Understanding the Workplace, Self Awareness, Exploring Careers, Goal Setting & Decision Making, Workplace Skills, Career & Education Planning, and Job Search.
Career Guidance and Exploration
From the National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, this topic explores how families and professionals can support youth with disabilities through the various stages and components of preparing for, obtaining, and succeeding in employment. It reviews strategies and tools for understanding employment-related interests, skills, abilities, and aptitudes; outlines necessary steps for résumé or curriculum vitae preparation; and provides resources for learning about workplace accommodations.
New! Employment Transition Plan Template and Instructions
Project 10 developed an Employment Transition Plan Template and Employment Transition Plan Instructions with the Bureau of Exceptional Education and Student Services (BEESS) to guide school district staff in the completion of the employment transition plan, which is required by section 1003.4282(11)(2)(a-d).
This plan must be completed for any student with a disability for whom the individual educational plan (IEP) team has determined that mastery of academic and employment competencies is the most appropriate way for a student to demonstrate his or her skills. It is recommended that school districts build flexibility into the plan to ensure student mastery of competencies and success in the workplace.
Please note: Districts are not obligated to use this template. The template is available in Microsoft Word which enables users to modify the plan to fit the need of the student.
employment plan template and instructions may also be found on the
Florida Department of Education (FLDOE) BEESS Secondary Transition
website at http://www.fldoe.org/
Exploring Career Information
This Bureau of Labor Statistics Web site helps users identify careers in their areas of interest. It also provides information on what the job is like, the preparation required, pay scales, and job openings and outlook.
Florida Virtual Campus
The Florida Virtual Campus is Florida's online learning resource center containing information on online postsecondary courses and programs, financial aid, college and career readiness planning, and information that was previously available on FACTS.org.
Occupational Outlook Handbook (2014)
OOH provides information regarding hundreds of jobs such as the training and education needed, earnings, expected job prospects, what workers do on the job, and working conditions. It also provides job searching tips and information regarding the job market in each state. The OOH is updated every two years.
7980040 Preparation for Entrepreneurship/Self-Employment Scope and Sequence
The purpose of this scope and sequence is to support teachers implementing Preparation for Entrepreneurship/Self-Employment (Course Number 7980040), which includes activities and resources.
7980110 High School Career Preparation Scope and Sequence
The purpose of this scope and sequence is to support teachers implementing High School Career Preparation (Course Number 7980110), which includes activities and resources.
7980120 High School Career Experiences Scope and Sequence
The purpose of this scope and sequence is to support teachers implementing High School Career Experience (Course Number 7980120), which includes activities and resources.
7980130 High School Career Placement Scope and Sequence
The purpose of this scope and sequence is to support teachers implementing High School Career Placement (Course Number 7980130), which includes activities and resources.
7980150 Supported Competitive Employment Scope and Sequence
The purpose of this scope and sequence is to support teachers implementing Supported Competitive Employment (Course Number 7980150), which includes activities and resources.
Program Structure Page
This Web page from the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center contains information on evidence-based practices and lesson plans in the following areas: http://www.transitionta.org/
Using Community Based Instruction to Teach Community Integration Skills
Using Community Based Instruction to Teach Employment Skills
Work-Based Learning Opportunities for High School Students (2013) http://www.nrccte.org/sites/default/files/publication-files/nrccte_work-based_learning.pdf
Non-paid Community-Based Vocational Educational (CBVE) Programs
This Technical Assistance Paper from the Florida Department of Education Bureau of Exceptional Education and Student Services contains helpful guidelines, recommendations, and best practices.
Paid and Non-Paid Work Experience, Employment, and Supported Employment
APD Supported Employment Web Page
This section of the Agency for Persons with Disabilities Web site contains information about APD’s five year employment initiative, Business Leadership Networks, Florida Benefits Information Resource Network (FBIRN), Let’s Get Everyone to Work videos, and APD success stories. Links are also provided to the APD Job Search Website, 2013 Master SSI Calculation Spreadsheet, Plan to Achieve Self Support Electronic Toolkit, and other resources related to Supported Employment.
Career Guidance and Exploration
This National Center on Secondary Education and Transition topic explores how families and professionals can support youth with disabilities who are preparing for, obtaining, and succeeding in employment. it reviews strategies and tools for understanding employment-related interests, skills, abilities, and aptitudes; outlines necessary steps for résumé or curriculum vitae preparation; and provides resources for learning about workplace accommodations.
This National Center on Secondary Education and Transition topic explores schools and employer partnerships that provide opportunities for youth to learn about work and prepare for future careers.
Employment Supports and Accommodations
This National Center on Secondary Education and Transition topic explores workplace adjustments employers can make to accommodate people with disabilities so that they can successfully access the workplace and perform their job tasks.
This Web site contains employment success stories, presentations on getting a good job, information regarding Social Security work incentives (including PASS plans), and a mini-course on self-employment. There are also discussion boards for students, family members, and professionals involved in transition.
This National Center on Secondary Education and Transition topic explores the benefits of providing youth with opportunities to learn at job sites in their communities through the use of internships, workplace mentoring, service learning, and other strategies.
Work-Based Learning Opportunities for High School Students (2013)
The Discovery Process
Discovery is a process for getting to know a student by collecting information about his or her interests, strengths, environments or activities where they are at their best, supports that are effective for them, and present levels of performance. Information is gathered through a series of activities, interviews and observations at home, school, and in the community as well as with people who know the student well. A Vocational Profile is created to provide direction to career development activities and to share information for job development. Discovery is an alternative strategy to more traditional or standardized forms of vocational evaluation. The Rural Institute at the University of Montana Web site contains in-depth information regarding the Discovery process and has a link to the "Steps of Discovery."
Customized Career Planning
Additional Discovery resources on the Rural Institute at the University of Montana Web site include examples Vocational/Personal Profile Forms, Customized Employment Meeting Forms, and information regarding creating representational portfolios.
Mississippi Model Youth Transition Innovation (MYTI)
MYTI was one of seven Social Security demonstration projects designed to assist young people to become employed through transition interventions from school to work, thereby reducing reliance on public benefits. The Discovery process was embedded within the project. Although the project has ended, a description of the project and forms are still available through Michael Callahan, the creator of the Discovery process.
This PowerPoint presentation was part of an April 2008 training conducted by Michael Callahan and sponsored by Partners in Transition. Click on "Implementing Discovery."
DECA School-Based Enterprise
This Web site contains information regarding School-Based Enterprise (SBE) best practices, ideas for SBEs, videos of successful SBEs, a list of approved SBE vendors, and a guide for starting and managing SBEs.
Who's Minding the Store? A Guide for Educators Working with School-Based Enterprises: Activities and Strategies for Creating and Operating Innovative and Productive Learning Experiences
This curriculum module from the National Center for Research in Vocational Education (NCRVE) and REAL Enterprises guides a class through the development and maintenance of a school-based enterprise. It provides tools and exercises on topics such as keeping student interest high, creating "intrapreneurial ventures," recruiting new student employees, and integrating the enterprise with other disciplines.
Autism at-a-Glance: Supporting Functional Communication in High School
http://csesa.fpg.unc.edu/resources/autism-glance-supporting-functional-communication-high-schoolThis Autism at-a-Glance was designed by the Center on Secondary Education for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (CSESA) to support high school staff and family members in understanding and improving the communication skills of adolescents on the autism spectrum. The content was developed to specifically target the needs of students who have more significant communication needs.
Autism at-a-Glance: Supporting Communication in High School
This issue of Autism at-a-Glance, developed by the Center on Secondary Education for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (CSESA), focuses on understanding and improving the communication skills of adolescents on the autism spectrum. The content specifically targets the needs of students who are able to communicate conversationally. Examples are provided in the context of academic courses and teacher and peer relationships.
National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center - Student Development
This NSTTAC web page contains a number of resources for teaching social skills, leisure skills, job-related social/communication skills, and more.
Social Skills: Promoting Positive Behavior, Academic Success, and School Safety
This National Association for School Psychologists (NASP) fact sheet includes examples of evidence-based social skills programs.
Teaching Social Skills
This information brief was created by Christine D. Bremer and John Smith at the National Center for Secondary Education and Transition.
Making (and Keeping) Friends: A Model for Social Skills Instruction
This Indiana Resource Center for Autism (IRCA) article on addressing social skill deficits in children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) provides a five stage model for social skills instruction with particular emphasis placed on an emerging intervention strategy, videotaped self-modeling (VSM).
Independent Living Skills
This National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center Web page contains evidence-based practices and lesson plans for teaching
- Life skills
- Purchasing skills
- Functional reading skills
- Functional math skills|
- Banking skills
- Cooking skills
- Food preparation skills
- Grocery shopping skills
- Home maintenance skills
- Restaurant purchasing skills
- Safety skills
- Life skills using community-based, computer assisted, and self-management skills
- Personal health and personal care skills
- Self-determination and self-advocacy skills
- Social and leisure skills training
Virtual Center for Independent Living for West Virginia
The Mountain State Centers for Independent Living created this Web site that includes on-line skill development resources on topics such as
- health and safety
- money management
- understanding the Americans with Disabilities Act
The Texas School for the Blind and Visually Impaired
This Web page contains an extensive list of independent living skills resources, geared primarily to individuals with vision impairments.
Independent Living Research Utilization (ILRU) Program Florida
This ILRU Program Web site has a feature to assist individuals with disabilities find a Center for Independent Living in their area in Florida.
Ansell-Casey Life Skills Assessments (ACLSA)
Free life skills assessments in English, French, and Spanish are available on-line for the following life skill areas:
- Career Planning
- Daily Living
- Home Life
- Housing and Money Management
- Self Care
- Social Relationships
- Work Life
- Work and Study Skills
Test, D.W., Fowler, C.H., Richter, S.M., White, J., Mazzotti, V., Walker, A.R., Kohler, P., & Kortering, L. (2009, August). Evidence-based practices in secondary transition. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 32, 115-128. Available at http://cde.sagepub.com/content/32/2/115
Test, D.W., Fowler, C., Kohler, P., & Kortering, L. (2010, August). Evidence-based practices and predictors in secondary transition: What we know and what we need to know, Executive Summary. (Revised). Charlotte, NC: National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center. Available at http://www.nsttac.org/sites/default/files/assets/pdf/pdf/ebps/ExecsummaryPPs.pdf
| The development of this website was funded by the University of South Florida St. Petersburg
through a grant by the Bureau of Exceptional Education and Student Services,
Florida Department of Education (2010 - 2011, 291-2621A-1C008).